Furniture products commonly used materials and accessories are divided into twelve categories, respectively, as follows:
First, aluminum category dining chair
Aluminum is one of the non-ferrous metals in the metal category, due to the wider application, described separately as follows: commonly used aluminum and die-casting aluminum alloy two. Which mainly by the purity of up to 92% of the aluminum ingot as the main raw material, while adding increased strength, hardness, wear resistance and other properties of metal elements, such as carbon, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, composed of a variety of components "alloy."
1.1 Aluminum profiles
Aluminum profiles such as screens, aluminum windows and so on. It is the use of extrusion molding process, that is, aluminum ingots and other raw materials in the melting furnace, after extrusion through the extruder to die out of molding, it can also be extruded in a variety of cross-section profiles. The main performance is the strength, hardness, wear resistance according to national standards GB6063. Advantages are: light weight only 2.8, no rust, design changes fast, low mold input, vertical elongation up to 10 meters above. Aluminum surface appearance is bright, matte of the points, the treatment process using anodized, surface treatment of oxide film to 0.12 m / m thickness. Aluminum wall thickness according to product design optimization to choose, not the thicker the better the market, should look at the cross-section structure requirements for design, it can be 0.5 ~ 5mm uneven. Layman that the thicker the more tough, in fact, the wrong view.
Aluminum surface quality is also more difficult to overcome the defects: warping, deformation, black lines, convex and white and white line. The designer level and the mold design and production process is reasonable, to avoid the above defects are not obvious. Check the defects should be carried out according to national inspection methods, that is, line of sight 40 ~ 50CM to identify defects.
Aluminum profiles in the use of a wide range of furniture: screen skeleton, a variety of hanging beams, table feet, decorative strips, handles, cable trough and cover, chair tube, etc., can be ever-changing design and use!
Although the advantages of aluminum, but there are also unsatisfactory places:
1, without oxidation of aluminum easily "rust"
2, resulting in performance degradation
3, the longitudinal strength than iron products
4, the surface oxide wear resistance than the plating layer
5, easy to scratch
6, the higher the cost of iron products relative to the cost of 3 to 4 times higher
1.2 Die-cast aluminum alloy
Die casting alloy and profile processing methods compared to the use of equipment are different, its raw materials to aluminum ingots (purity of about 92%) and alloy materials, melting through the furnace, into the die casting machine mold forming. Die-casting aluminum products can be designed as imaging toys, modeling different, easy to connect in various directions, in addition, it is high hardness, and can be mixed with zinc into zinc alloy.
Die-casting aluminum molding process points:
1, die-casting molding
2, rough polishing to mold more than expected material
3, fine polishing
On the other hand, die-casting aluminum production process, there should be mold to manufacture, the mold cost is very expensive, than the injection mold and other molds are high. At the same time, mold maintenance is very difficult to design errors when difficult to cut the material repair.
Die-cast aluminum Disadvantages:
1, the number of production and processing should be more, the cost is low
2, polishing more complex,
3, the production cycle is slow
4, the cost of products than the injection of high 3 to 4 times
5, screw hole requirements should be larger (diameter 4.5mm) connecting force was stable
Adaptation: Taiwan feet, class Taiwan connection, decorative head, aluminum seal pieces, table and coffee table top care, a wide range.
Second, the hardware category
"Hardware" concept is popular, the standard classification should be divided into two categories of ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals, it is used in the furniture tubular, rod-shaped, plate, line, angular several.
2.1 black metal parts
Mainly refers to the iron products, it has the advantage: resistance to deformation, high strength, good wear resistance, high hardness, low price, long life Is a carbon iron alloy, it is divided into high carbon steel, low carbon steel, carbon steel; it sub-tube, square tube, angle iron, steel several categories. Pipe is mainly used for table bricks, screens, pendants, arm, metal cabinets, doors and so on.
Iron and steel products Disadvantages:
1, easy to rust
2, weight heavy
3, afraid of wet
To solve the above defective methods are electroplating, spraying, black hair blue and so on.
Hardware processing and molding methods are more: bending, punching, drilling, welding, cutting, pressure. In short, according to the design requirements or product requirements for processing.
2.2 Non-ferrous metal parts
Refers to all metal parts such as aluminum, copper, zinc, stainless steel and so on. It has a feature is not easy to rust, the intensity is worse than the black metal, furniture used in more: aluminum, aluminum rods, stainless steel tube, stainless steel, copper, zinc plate.
Stainless steel parts: stainless steel parts of stainless steel and stainless steel two categories: often known as "430" for the stainless steel, "304" for the pure stainless steel, one of their methods to determine: the magnet test, "430" Suction, and "304" can not. Stainless steel parts slightly higher than the proportion of iron products, the price is much higher than the iron products 4 times, therefore, only high-end products before use.
Copper products: copper products are divided into pure copper and copper alloy. Copper, also known as copper, the hardness of poor hardness, but good toughness. Copper alloy used in furniture more brass, it is a zinc-based alloy copper. Pure copper prices slightly higher "304" stainless steel 30 to 40%, while brass is 20% lower than the price of pure copper. Copper alloy hardness, strength slightly higher than the stainless steel, but easy to break, brittle. Furniture used in the main pieces of copper handle, embedded screws. In order to prevent the "rust", pure copper can only be used after plating, while the brass is not needed, a large area used in furniture products less.
Zinc products: pure zinc products used less, mainly with the combination of zinc alloy or steel. Such as galvanized sheet, electrolytic plate and so on. Furniture used less, because the strength of zinc products is poor. Zinc alloy accessories such as eccentric buckle, structural parts connection points (pieces) and so on. Zinc alloy specific gravity slightly lower than about 6.8, the price between steel and aluminum, the majority of zinc alloy die casting in the form of production of furniture accessories.
Titanium, Zirconium Alloy: This is a relatively expensive metal, it is used for most of the furniture in the form of electroplating, for high-grade handle, hinge and high gear exposed parts or hotel furniture. Its plating cost is about 40% higher than the chrome cost, but the appearance of high-grade similar gold and silver products, wear resistance is very good, not rust.
2.3 cast metal
Furniture, metal products, there are many castings, such as handle, door hinge, etc., the current market a variety of casting a variety of casting process, such as: casting process, die casting process, casting process. Casting materials are brass, stainless steel, zinc-tin alloy, aluminum alloy. Casting Product Features: Exquisite, special shape and so on. Shortcomings for a single piece of high cost, different casting process costs are different, roughly high to low, casting casting casting, mold cost to low: casting casting casting. Casting products shortcomings: the production cycle slightly increased, the product should be 2 to 3 processes to make qualified accessories, and accessories according to different requirements or plating, polishing, drawing, sandblasting, fuel and other surface decoration treatment.
Third, rubber and plastics
3.1 plastic parts
The application of plastic products in furniture is very common, and there are many types of materials: ABS, PP, PVC, PU, POM, PA, PMMA, PE, PS, PC, different materials to adapt to different ranges.
ABS: common name engineering plastics, can be used for connectors, seat back, seat plate, it is plastic can be electroplating (water plating) the main raw material.
PP: common name polypropylene, for five-star feet, handrails, Ottomans and strength requirements are not high connector. Disadvantages: poor wear resistance, low surface hardness.
PVC: common name PVC, mainly used for sealing parts, insert conditions. It is suitable for extrusion molding, while PVC material is a non-combustible material in plastic parts, processing and forming temperature stability is poor, especially the color stability is not good.
PU: common name polyurethane. Mainly used for handrails (foam) accessories.
POM: common name race steel. Mainly used for wear-resistant parts such as foot pad, casters, door hinge, hinge and so on. Performance wear resistance, pressure, but poor dimensional stability.
PA: Common name nylon. Mainly used for mats, five claws, casters and other wear-resistant, high life requirements of the place. Features: wear, pressure, high strength indoor long life, individual models such as PA66 high temperature up to 2200, the disadvantage is the sun under the sun to change the performance, easy to break, poor weather resistance.
PMMA: plexiglass (commonly known as acrylic). There are five kinds of transparent materials in plastic, and PMMA is one of the highest transparency, the workpiece cutting acetic acid taste, easy processing deformation, with water immersion plastic bending. Disadvantages: easy to scratch the surface, the hardness is low, easy to crack when bending, the price is higher than ABS 20%.
PC: commonly known as polycarbonate. The variety is also a transparent material, the surface hardness, scratch resistance, impact resistance, high strength, good weather resistance (that is not afraid of sunlight). Furniture in the screen partition plate is the hollow extrusion of this material. Features: high cost of the cost, about 40% higher than the PMMA.
3.2 rubber parts
Most varieties of rubber vulcanization process, its characteristics: good softness, but also for different hard and soft adjustment, the shape can be complex, there is no mold release situation. Oil, acid, alkali, wear resistance are good. Disadvantages: more difficult to color rough (especially dark to light) hardness has a certain limit, the surface is more rough, unlike the plastic can do mirror effect. But the mold is low cost, fast cycle, the material can be incorporated into the production of magnetic powder, modified into magnetic, from the sound, sealing effect.
Furniture industry with rubber Dingqing rubber, silicone and so on. Generally used in furniture, screen insulation tape, foot plug, vacuum suction plug, rail damping pieces and so on.
Resin products are currently a major trend, more and more for furniture, building materials, such as artificial stone materials on the market, artificial bathtub, fire retardant board, glass and steel products. Resin is an unsaturated polymer chemicals, raw materials to liquid-based, mixed with the curing agent in the form of polymerization reaction heat and solidification into a solid. It is different from the plastic parts of the crushing and recycling can not be used. The cost of the price and PP almost, it is also the production process with mold casting molding, but the mold is simple, available wood mold, gypsum mold, rubber mold and so on. Especially to adapt to changing shape, short cycle, the output of small products. Furniture products in which one of the glass steel.
Fourth, glass products
Glass products according to different production processes are flat glass, blown glass two categories. At present, the use of flat glass larger, especially after deep processing of flat glass, more suitable for consumer market welcome. Blowing glass to do crafts and other three-dimensional modeling more classical furniture used in a variety of shapes more. Its characteristics: acid (in addition to fluoride acid) alkali, oil, fire, steel can be resistant to 300 ℃.
4.1 Flat glass
Flat glass is a silicate raw material, by 1300 degrees high temperature furnace dissolved into liquid, flowing through the tin water surface molding, commonly known as floating glass. As the raw material formula, process parameters, the appearance of flat glass in the sub-glass, white glass, colored glass three. Flat glass manufacturing in the thinner (less than 3mm below) the greater the difficulty, and too thick (more than 15mm) is also difficult, so the two on the market cost higher.
Flat glass with diamond (ie ordinary glass knife), high-speed water for cutting, after cutting the glass can be carried out on both sides of the edge, such as grinding straight edge, bevel edge, round edge, duck mouth, drilling, edging price high.
Flat glass surface can also be frosted (chemical, mechanical two), silk screen painting, paint, carving treatment, different surface treatment process price is not the same, roughly from high to low Sort: scrub → paint → silk screen paint → carving.
4.2 process processing glass
In addition to the above mentioned milling process, it can also be hot bending, steel, bonding and other treatment, so that the "plane" into a "three-dimensional" effect.
Rewan: refers to the flat glass at 500 ℃ or so began to soften, with the mold gently press to achieve the need for deformation effect, the process of bending different factories and equipment inconsistent, hot-rolled flat glass should be first edging or sandblasting deal with.
Tempered: refers to the glass at about 900 ℃ for emergency cooling treatment. Its characteristics: no broken glass after the sharp angle, while the glass temperature resistance increased to 300 ℃ does not break, its strength is also greatly improved about 10 times.
Adhesive: refers to the use of UV glue, the UV light curing, after bonding glass can withstand more than 200kg tension, bonding materials to do glass and glass, glass and metal, but the glue and the process is different to make qualified products The
The above three kinds of process processing costs the price from high to low: steel → hot bending → bonding.
4.3 Art processing glass
Here is the focus of flat glass art processing methods and effects, Gu Guyi meaning "art" that there is a certain artistic effect of glass processing.
Matte effect: flat glass in the use of mechanical scrub, the actual effect is matte sand too thick, easy to hand marks, and the use of chemical scrub that is made of fluoride and other pharmaceutical soak. The advantage is not produce fingerprints, sand rough and delicate, the process can be combined with silk surface to make a variety of patterns, text.
Embossing effect: embossing that is used in a variety of mold patterns, patterns, the use of glass to reach the deformation of the temperature, the machine pressure from. At present, a variety of pattern patterns, but also self-designed mold embossed, embossed glass is a special hot bending in the special column.
Spray effect: spray effect of two, one is transparent color effect, the other is a monochrome opaque effect. Spraying the essence of the glass etchant with the effect of color, it will not be able to change the glass surface, does not involve the nature of the glass structure.
Paint effect: that is, the surface of the glass paint treatment. In order to improve the adhesion of the paint layer, the paint glass should be baked into the oven, so as to achieve a permanent attachment effect.
Kelly effect: the use of transparent film will print up the pattern, and paste to the glass surface, the high temperature baking, film carbonation, and the pattern, the text that is left on the surface.
Five, sponge class
There are many types of spices used in furniture, there are foam, stereotypes cotton, rubber cotton, memory cotton and so on.
5.1 stereotypes cotton
This material cotton from the polyurethane material, the foam agent and other additives mixed, the pressure into the simple mold can be heated to squeeze out different shapes of sponge, it is suitable for swivel chair sofa cushion, back cotton, there are a small amount of handrails Do with stereotypes cotton. At present, the use of 55 # ~ 60 # material density, its flexibility is more in line with national standards.
Sponge elasticity can be adjusted, according to different parts of the product to adjust. General cotton is more high hardness, density, back cotton followed, cotton is more soft.
This material is foamed with polyether, like foamed bread. Can be used mechanical equipment foam can also be artificial wood surrounded by foam, the foam of cotton like a square bread, like the use of slicing machine through the slicing process, according to different requirements cutting thickness, foam can also adjust the hardness The Cotton is generally used 25 ~ 28kg / m3, the other using 20 ~ 22kg / m3 density.
Sponge hardness and density although there is a direct relationship, but also with different additives formulations also have a relationship, so the industry is divided into high elasticity, gray super, black and gray, soft cotton. Product design should be used as a different shape, the structure of a reasonable scientific mix, the general points on, in the low three parts with different elasticity, density of sponge.
There is a sponge called fire cotton material, in fact, before the sponge foam, the material formula to add fire agents, such as chlorine, bromine to sponge fire can produce fire smoke, play a flame retardant role.
5.3 rubber cotton
Sponge in a,